Polyphenols in apples
Anti-aging and protective effects of apples. One of the most important challenges facing people is to preseve their youth for as long as possible, protect their health, and above all, protect themselves against diseases, i.a. neoplasms. A great solution to all these problems may be polyphenols, which occur in large amounts in apples, especially in the apple peel. Polyphenols – origin and function. Polyphenols are bioactive substances that, above all, are distinguished by a high antioxidant activity, and thus have anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-tumour effects. Content of antioxidants in different types of fruit (click to zoom). Polyphenols are produced in apples during physiological development, as well as in response to stress, which may be caused by solar radiation, drought or pathogen attack. The content of polyphenols in a given apple depends on the location of the fruit in the tree crown, cultivation conditions, and exposure to sun. Polyphenols in apples usually consist of procyanidins in more than 50%, the remainder being quercetin glycosides, phenolic acids and chalcones. Procyanidins, also known as tannins, give fruit a sour and bitter taste. In addition to the antioxidant activity and anti-tumour effects, they also prevent coronary artery disease, have antibacterial properties, and stimulate hair growth. The content of PF FC polyphenols, including PC VT procyanidin, in flesh and peel per the edible part of an apple for the most popular apple varieties in Poland (click to zoom): in conversion to the edible part of the apple, the most popular apple varieties in Poland (click to enlarge): The table above shows that the content of procyanidins, as well as polyphenols in peel outnumbers that in flesh 2-3 times, so it is recommended to eat apples with their peel. The largest amount of polyphenols can be found in the Idared, and procyanidins in the Elstar variety.
Polyphenols are bioactive substances which have anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-tumour effects.
POLYPHENOLS ACTIVITY. The antioxidant effect of polyphenols consists in inhibiting the action of enzymes involved in the production of free radicals. Polyphenols also neutralize metal ions responsible for catalysing reactions that result in the formation of reactive oxygen species. Free radicals are formed e.g. as a result of oxygen metabolism in the body, as well as as a result of non-physiological factors, such as UV radiation or air pollution. They have one or more unpaired electrons that they acquire from other molecules in the body's tissues. The destructive action of free radicals results in damage to the body's cells, which contributes to their aging or mutation, and consequently to the development of cancer. Polyphenols also inhibit the formation of blood vessels of the forming tumor, which are supplied with nutrients. Polyphenols as a component of the diet. Fruits rich in polyphenols or dietary supplements containing them, consumed as food, have antioxidant and prevent the formation and development of cancer. By limiting the platelet aggregation process, they prevent the formation of blood clots, prevent ischemic disease, protect the heart and the inner rings of the aorta. They have antibacterial properties and stimulate hair growth. hk Anti-ageing and protective effect in cosmetics. Polyphenols used as an ingredient in cosmetics reduce the effects of the damaging effects of UV radiation and air pollution on the skin. UVB radiation acts on the surface of the skin. It causes damage to the epidermis and its hyperkeratosis, inflammation, has mutagenic, carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. At the molecular level, it causes DNA damage. UVA radiation penetrates the dermis, causing damage to collagen and elastin fibers and the walls of blood vessels. It is the main cause of phototoxic and photoallergic reactions, contributes to exogenous aging of the skin, has mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The damage caused by them is irreversible and most often becomes apparent after years. After reaching the living layers of the epidermis and skin, UV radiation is absorbed by cellular structures, after which a series of biochemical reactions are triggered. One of them leads to DNA damage, which can result in the formation of cancer. The second, under the influence of energy in the form of a photon, leads to the formation of free radicals. They contribute, among others, to to activate metalloproteinases - enzymes that cause the destruction of collagen fibers in the skin and loss of its elasticity. They also attack the genetic material contained in DNA. If the DNA damage is very severe, cell death occurs. On the other hand, minor damage called mutations accumulate over the years - over time, this can lead to the transformation of such a cell into a cancer cell. The antioxidant effect of polyphenols also has an impact on preventing the formation of free radicals on the skin surface as a result of chemical reactions caused by substances present in air pollution. In summary, one of the best sources of antioxidants that protect us is polyphenol-rich apples. They should be eaten at least once a day with the peel or use dietary supplements containing concentrated doses of polyphenols. Polyphenols can also be delivered directly to the skin in the form of Yappco natural care cosmetics, whose recipes are based on apples. Prepared by TZ Sources: Monika Kosmala, Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk, procyjanidyny najpopularniejszych w Polsce deserowych odmian jabłek. YWNO. Nauka. Technologia. Jakość, 2006, 2 (47) Supl., 124 – 134.; Boyer J, Liu RH. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutr J. 2004 May; Naturalne promieniowanie UV, a przedwczesne starzenie się skóry człowieka, dr med. Elżbieta Łastowiecka-Moras, dr med. Joanna Bugajska - Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy. Boyer J, Liu RH. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutr J. 2004 May; Natural UV radiation and premature aging of human skin, Elżbieta Łastowiecka-Moras, MD, Joanna Bugajska, MD – Central Institute for Labor Protection – National Research Institute.