Gamma-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) has moisturizing properties many times more effective than those of hyaluronic acid.
Moisturizing is the basis in skin care
Moisturizing is the basis in skin, hair and nail care, regardless of their type and age, which is the point in Yappco natural products.
Water is the source of the formation of keratin, needed to create the epidermis, hair and nails that constantly grow and renew themselves. In addition, it is necessary for the processes of creating collagen and elastin fibres, which are responsible for its firmness and elasticity, and thus its attractive and younger looks. The lack of moisturizing triggers wrinkles, sagging, irritation and roughness of skin. Healthy hair contains 10% of water, which is a component of ceramides – fats, which act as an elastic binding material responsible for hair elasticity and keeping the hair cuticles flat. Dehydrated hair is rough, hard and brittle. As with the skin, it is also very important to take care of the protective fat layer of the hair, which prevents the water from evaporating. Moisture is also essential for hair roots and the scalp. Thanks to it, the hair is healthy, roots are lifted and the scalp is free of irritation. The risk of dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis is reduced as well.
Moisturizers can help to retain moisture in the deep layers of the skin by binding its molecules and the tissue, which, in the case of skin, prevents the moisture from migrating to the outer layers and outside the body. They also strengthen the hydrolipid coat, which retains water in the skin from the outside. Hair conditioners help to bind water in ceramides and retain moisture without damaging the sebum barrier. An important role in retaining moisture is served by skin and hair-care products, which, if poorly made or containing aggressive detergents such as SLS or SLES, may damage the hydrolipid barrier.
Until recently, it was hyaluronic acid (HA), naturally produced in your skin, which was widely recognized as the best substance for binding water in deep layers of skin. This acid is also produced for the needs of cosmetology and supplied from the outside.
γ-PGA (gamma-poly-glutamic acid).
Gamma-poly-glutamic acid, the so called γ-PGA or gamma-PGA is a natural, multifunctional biopolymer synthesized by Bacillus Subtilis during fermentation. For the first time it was extracted from Natto – a traditional Japanese food made from fermented soybean, so it is natural, thus safe for a human body. The cosmetology-oriented research into γ-PGA began after having observed that hand skin of professional Natto makers, who mix the food with their hands, is extraordinarily smooth. It has the ability to bond water particles in the amount of 5000 more than its mass.By comparison, hyaluronic acid binds water up to 1.000 times its weight.
It acts by:
- binding and retaining water in the deeper skin layers,
- enhancing the performance of the natural hyaluronic acid (HA),
- slowing the degradation of hyaluronic acid (HA),
- stimulating the development of substances responsible for formation of the NMF, i.e. natural moisturizing and moisture retaining factor,
- reducing the TEWL, i.e. transepidermal water loss,
- replenishing nutrients and supplements for skin care,
- forming an external evaporation-inhibiting film,
- protecting from UV radiation.
Gamma-polyglutamic acid can reach small sizes, i.e. 70-100 k DA, which allows its molecules to advance into deeper layers of the skin. γ-PGA monomers, thanks to their ability to penetrate and the quality to attach nutrients and skin care supplements contained in beauty products, can deliver them to the dermis. As for now, gamma-PGA is the only known effective ingredient, which stimulates the production of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) up to 130% of its standard level. This acid, thanks to binding the water molecules and forming an outer membrane, reduces the TEWL, i.e. transepidermal water loss, by almost a half. Larger, 700-1000 k DA γ-PGA particles stay on the outer layer of the skin and by binding water strengthen the hydrolipid barrier, which prevents the moisture from evaporating. This layer also helps to create a filter that protects from harmful UV radiation. Hyaluronic acid is naturally produced in the skin by fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Its level decreases during the process of cellular differentiation. It is degraded by hyaluronidase and removed from the body. The estimated time of its half-life is about 12 hours. Gamma-PGA slows its degradation.